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In fact, I can (and do) give examples of each to writing classes from
first year to faculty every year, and they all--without
exception--recognize and can explain the difference in meaning--despite
the fact that few know the terms. The following sentences have quite
different meanings, and every native English speaker will recognize
that:

The girl who was intelligent went home.
The girl, who was intelligent, went home.

The first sentence gives us information not available in the second.

To carry this further, imagine the horrors of a grammar-checked version
of Faulkner--all those winding, convoluted sentences "fixed" by
simplistic rules.  Or, worse, Joyce:  the grammar-checked and fully
revised for comprehension by computer of _Ulysses_.

This, by the way, validates rules, not the opposited.  It is because
commas have meaning that the two sentences above have different
meanings.  And no rule requires either one in any specific
instance--only an author can decide which to say.  It is a case of
crystal clear writing because it makes a precise and significant
distinction.
Nancy


>>> [log in to unmask] 04/11/06 12:04 AM >>>
A lot of people wouldn't know what type of clause you intended either.
Could be case of unclear writing.

Peter
----- Original Message ----- 
From: "Nancy Gish" <[log in to unmask]>
To: <[log in to unmask]>
Sent: Monday, April 10, 2006 12:17 PM
Subject: Re: (OT) Towards a speech of the machine ...


> Here is something computers and math cannot do (by definition I am
> sure):  know whether I intend a restrictive or nonrestrictive clause
> where it is optional.  Hence the pointlessness of grammar checks,
which
> do not seem to know any grammar.
> Nancy
> 
> >>> [log in to unmask] 4/10/2006 3:03 pm >>>
> Three is an entire field called 'Knowledge Representation' which
exists
> to 
> do things exactly like this.
> 
> In regard to the recent comments on Diderot, there is a project called
> 'Cyc' 
> which is intended to encode all of the common sense and other
knowledge
> that 
> people use (Cyc as in encyclopedia). For example, Cyc is supposed to
be
> able 
> to surmise and thus know that if Alice is the mother of Bob then by 
> implication Alice is older than Bob. It would be able to build up a
set
> of 
> rules and facts that would allow it to understand how the world
> operates.
> 
> Cyc is a massive database project that has been going on for many
> years. Cyc 
> was supposed to be able to take human-level queries about real world
> issues 
> and create useful answers. Now if Cyc were able to do this, it would
be
> 
> known far outside the AI community. Since it is not, this is the
answer
> to 
> your question on the ability of mathematics to represent real world 
> knowledge. Determining that the mother of Bob is older than Bob is a 
> significant achievement for this program. Now consider this program 
> understanding or writing poetry.
> 
> Knowledge beyond the trivial is beyond the scope of mathematics.
> 
> 
> 
> ----- Original Message ----- 
> From: "Vishvesh Obla" <[log in to unmask]>
> To: <[log in to unmask]>
> Sent: Monday, April 10, 2006 2:36 PM
> Subject: (OT) Towards a speech of the machine ...
> 
> 
> Written elsewhere but relevant to a discussion a few
> days before:
> 
> --------------------
> 
> A few days before when a few friends of mine were
> sending me birthday wishes which led to further
> correspondence when I remarked that after you cross a
> certain age, birth days also bring in an acute feeling
> of your age, a friend of mine  made a humorous remark
> (from a Tamil song) : 'Andondru pOnal vayadhondru
> kUdum.'.  I was struck by the beauty of the line for
> the tint of sarcasm (which was humorous) it had.
> 
> Another friend who was not a Tamilian wanted to know
> what it meant.  While I was stumbling at various
> expressions to translate it so that it would also
> convey that subtle sarcasm, my wife, who is a computer
> programmer as well, had translated it without batting
> her eyelid with a quick :
> 
> if year++ then age ++
> 
> I was stunned by that expression which I don't know
> what to term as.  It wasn't translation, to say the
> obvious. You could translate the lyric blandly as
> 'With the passing of a year, your age increases as
> well' or, if someone had the ability to versify in
> English, write something equally memorable (with that
> subtle sarcasm).  But this was neither. It was an
> entire transformation of an *idea* in mathematical
> terms. For, the expression had the precise
> mathematical equivalent of what the lyric conveyed.
> 
> I was struck by it by the questions it arose in my
> mind.  Language is of course about conveying sense
> through verbal and written communication, but what
> becomes of communication when it becomes mathematical
> ? It sure does gain in great clarity and precision,
> but I was wondering how oblivious it is of the
> imaginative faculty that enriches language by its
> creative breath.  The development of language goes
> through various phases of alterations.  Various
> changes are constantly brought in to it by various
> factors as the development of its various dialects,
> influences of other languages etc.  When the written
> form of it gets standardized it brings in a great
> change as well for many languages.  Change is
> permanent, no doubt.  But I was a little concerned
> about a development as this : that is, to express a
> sentiment through mathematical terms.  For, I believe,
> this change is going to stay in and influence stronger
> than any other changes the human mind earlier could
> adopt itself to or assimilate while still retaining
> its innate sense of the breath of life a language has
> in it inherently.  We have already heard of computers
> composing music and poetry.  Is creativity a
> mathematical logic and precision in expression as that
> of that code which expresses the idea brilliantly ?  I
> was wondering if in an age when Technology has
> advanced at an unbelievable speed, mankind would
> invariably be more and more pushed towards such
> precise expressions possibly altering language to an
> entirely different level that has been unseen
> hitherto.
> 
> Are we seeing the *dawn* of it already ?   Or is it a
> doom ?
> 
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