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MOBIRDS-L  October 2016, Week 4

MOBIRDS-L October 2016, Week 4

Subject:

Re: Kites, warblers, Orioles, Towhees: TAXONOMY IN FLUX

From:

"Miller, Terry" <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Miller, Terry

Date:

Mon, 24 Oct 2016 15:51:34 +0000

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (1 lines)

Well, the old "splitters" and "lumpers" controversy....



I admit to being a "lumper" and the new species definition of "a reproductively isolated population" has its role but I believe it has caused more confusion as compared to simply using the "subspecies" or "race" distinction.  How many "species" of Darwin's finches are there?  I believe when I was in college there were 16 and it has slowly trickled down to 10 in my last College Zoology textbook.  But, using the BSC definition, I believe I read that there is quite a bit of successful hybridization and maybe only 2-3 species?



The genetic potential for variation in gene pools can be quite significant....albeit not birds, look at the numerous breeds of domestic dogs...and that can interbreed successfully with coyotes and wolves.



Using Edge's example on the Yellow-rumped Warblers... "they interbreed and produce viable, reproductively capable young—oops—can’t be separate species by that old definition we had" and " but still, others kept looking closer—some other differences besides those throats just kept bothering them.   Maybe, just maybe they really are distinct species."  



What is the great problem with leaving them classified as subspecies?  What is "better" at defining a "distinct" species than freely interbreeding and producing fertile offspring?   Maybe I am just getting older and crankier and have a greater desire for the simple!!   



Sorry for the Monday morning rant, and I am not a taxonomic expert, but the situation just appears to becoming much more messy with competing views from comparative morphology, DNA, and protein advocates......



Hey, have you seen those fall colors of leaves lately that so delight the soul?  :)



Terry L. Miller

Kearney High School

Ecology/College Zoology/Genetics/Botany/Astronomy/Earth Science Teacher

816-628-4585

[log in to unmask]



“It is the inherent dignity of every human person that we must strive to respect, to inspire, and to believe in….and what a great responsibility we have as teachers and role models!”



“If a child is to keep alive his inborn sense of wonder, he needs the companionship of at least one adult who can share it, rediscovering with him the joy, excitement, and mystery of the world we live in.”    Rachel Carson









-----Original Message-----

From: Missouri Wild Bird Forum [mailto:[log in to unmask]] On Behalf Of Edge Wade

Sent: Friday, October 21, 2016 11:29 AM

To: [log in to unmask]

Subject: Kites, warblers, Orioles, Towhees: TAXONOMY IN FLUX



Some thoughts on taxonomy—a subject that might not be at the top of your birding interests, but one that affects us in every aspect of birding as a community (i.e., we must communicate in a common language, and taxonomy is the basic syntax).



When most of us were in elementary, high school or college, a species is a species, Period.  That was a very solid, comforting way to view life forms.



But those blasted scientists just had to keep looking, working to answer niggling questions.



Essentially, the definition of a species is no longer an absolute.  Most authorities/researchers go by what is known as BSC—Biological Species Concept.  That’s close to the absolute kind of thinking we grew up with, but the space between “close and exactly” is where the rub is—and that rub is exciting and sometimes, like Christine’s kite dilemma, frustrating.



Clearly, an American Robin and a Brown Thrasher are distinctly different species, but what about birds that closely resemble one another?  We’ll skip those pesky juncos and just go with a warbler pair and an oriole pair.  Each example is chosen to illustrate a point.



Many years ago, Audubon’s Warbler and Myrtle Warbler were thought to be different species.  But, they interbreed and produce viable, reproductively capable young—oops—can’t be separate species by that old definition we had.  So, they were “lumped” into Yellow-rumped Warbler, with subspecies “Audubon’s” in the west (the one with the yellow throat) and “Myrtle” in the east (the white-throated version we see 99.9% of the time in MO).   Most accepted that as o.k., but still, others kept looking closer—some other differences besides those throats just kept bothering them.   Maybe, just maybe they really are distinct species.



Then there were those orioles.  James Rising’s research revealed Baltimore and Bullock’s Orioles interbreeding in the contact zone—a zone we humans modified by planting trees that created a route across the plains that tree-loving birds could navigate.  The two orioles met after being isolated for many eons.  Orioles in that area were few; mates were limited.  The two species interbred.   So, we were given a new species, a lump:  Northern Oriole.  This species was depicted with the two forms/subspecies for a short time in field guide publication history. Don’t look for it in your current field guide—it ain’t there.   DNA work revealed that these two aren’t even their closest relatives, species-wise. 



My examples are treated here very superficially—only intended to get you thinking into the fluidity in ornithological taxonomic thinking and research.



So, how does a yeoman birder deal with all this flux?



1.  Look at the copyright date of your field guide(s).   If it is more than 2 years old, it has some non-current species information/names of birds.  If it is 10 years old, don't take much for granted--get a newer guide.



2.  Do as Brad suggests, start with googling a bird name and follow up with the discussion of that species and relatives.



3.  Look at the GENUS name of the bird you are interested in and then the SPECIES name—you’ll learn a lot.  Try that with Towhees—see what’s happened with our understanding of what we used to call Rufous-sided Towhee.  And note that the subspecies in Florida with the white eye might be up for full species status.



But most of all, have fun with it.  The more you know about how taxonomic decisions are made, the more fun it can be to follow the process.  And, yes, the frustration will be there, but at least we can laugh along with it.



Edge Wade

Columbia, MO

[log in to unmask]







 





  



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The Audubon Society of Missouri's Wild Bird Discussion Forum Questions or comments? Email the list owners:

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