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MOBIRDS-L  May 2012, Week 5

MOBIRDS-L May 2012, Week 5

Subject:

More than you want to read on Sharp-shinned Hawks

From:

Brad Jacobs <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Brad Jacobs <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Thu, 31 May 2012 15:22:18 +0000

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (94 lines)

If you feel dizzy after a few lines of reading the following text, just go birding and enjoy the cool day.

The illustrated bird was from the Rufous-thighed Hawk group from eastern and southern South America, 
which is considered a Sharp-shinned Hawk by some scientists and a separate species by others.

Below is a summary of the Sharp-shinned Hawk and what taxonomists have down with variation present across the western hemisphere. 

Sharp-shinned Hawk - Related Taxa (modified from Avibase)
                   (Definition: Taxon/Taxa singular/plural – a science-based grouping of organism)
Accipiter [striatus, ventralis or erythronemius]
                  (Classified by American Ornithologists’ Union (AOU) 1998 indicating that the four asterisked are sometimes considered separate species)

Accipiter striatus – All inclusive Sharp-shinned Hawk – 10 subspecies below
1)	* Accipiter striatus← - North American (N.A.) Group – 7 races 
       •	Accipiter striatus [velox] – N. A. Continental Group			Subspecies		
              -Accipiter striatus perobscurus – Queen Charllote Is. B.C. Can.		1
             - Accipiter striatus velox – USA and Canada				2
              -Accipiter striatus suttoni – Mexico					3
       •	Accipiter striatus [striatus] – Caribbean Group
             -Accipiter striatus striatus – Hispañola					4
             -Accipiter striatus venator – Puerto Rico					5
             -Accipiter striatus fringilloides – Cuba					6
     * Accipiter chionogaster – (White-breasted) Mex. and Central America
             -Accipiter chionogaster chionogaster – Chiapas, Mex. to Nicaragua 	7
             -Accipiter chionogaster madrensis - Querrero and w. Oaxaca, MEX. 	8
 2) * Accipiter ventralis – (Plain-breasted) Andean Group			9
           [Accipiter ventralis salvini] – paler race of Andean group
 3)  * Accipiter erythronemius – (Rufous-thighed) Non-Andean S. A. Group          10	
==================================================================
Key to above taxon groupings:
* considered species by some and subspecies or races by others. 
1), 2) & 3) are AOU subspecies groups (1998)
Note AOU places Plain-breasted Hawk in Rufous-thighed Hawk Group
 ==========================================================================

Discussion below is from “Birds of North America Online” species account for Sharp-shinned Hawk. http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/ 

This account follows classification of American Ornithologists’ Union (1998), which includes under Sharp-shinned Hawk the following taxa sometimes regarded as distinct species: erythronemius (Rufous-thighed Hawk) of se. South America, chionogaster (White-breasted Hawk) of Central America, and ventralis (Plain-breasted Hawk) of montane nw. and w. South America (cf. Hellmayr and Conover 1949, Friedmann 1950, Storer 1952, Monroe 1968, Blake 1977, and R. Ridgely in Sibley and Monroe 1990). Taxonomy of this complex unsettled and particularly in need of comparative analysis of morphology, ecology, behavior, vocalizations, and genetics.

Geographic Variation 
Most geographic variation involves overall size, amount of pigmentation on upperparts, eye color of adults, and color and pattern of underparts; the following summary based largely on Storer 1952, Wattel 1973, and Palmer 1988 . Size increases clinally southward in North America to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, then decreases. Although size variation not thoroughly analyzed in North America, birds from the Pacific Northwest (perobscurus) average larger than velox elsewhere on the continent. Autumn migrants trapped in the Goshute Mtns. of Nevada weighed less and had longer tails and wings than those trapped at Cedar Grove, WI (Smith et al. 1990). West Indies populations small, about 10% smaller overall than continental North American birds (Delannoy and Cruz 1988). Color and pattern of underparts varies from dark and heavily marked on islands off the coast of British Columbia (perobscurus) to pale rufous with reduced and faint markings southward through Mexico, where tibial feathering (thighs, flags, or crural feathers) becomes unbarred light rufous. Amount and intensity of rufous on underparts in North American populations (velox) shows large amount of individual variation within a given population. West Indies forms tend to be rufous or rusty on side of head and on vent and vary in distinctness of barring on tail. Eye color of adults varies from red in northern populations to brown or brownish red in n. Mexico (suttoni), yellow in sw. Mexico (madrensis), and variable (amber to red) in extreme s. Mexico and n. Central America (chionogaster).
South American forms highly variable on underparts (entirely or extensively chestnut rufous, blackish, or tawny grayish more or less suffused with rufous) but always with deep rufous or reddish chestnut, immaculate tibial feathering; upperparts darker and more uniform and size averages smaller in se. South America (erythronemius; Blake 1977).
Subspecies 

Ten subspecies recognized (Brown and Amadon 1968, Stresemann and Amadon 1979), these divided into 3 subspecies groups by Am. Ornithol. Union (1998): Sharp-shinned Hawk (striatus group), White-breasted Hawk (chionogaster group), and Rufous-thighed Hawk (erythronemius group).

Sharp-Shinned Hawk (Striatus Group). 
Four subspecies migratory or resident in continental North America to s. Mexico and 3 subspecies each resident on the 3 larger islands of the Greater Antilles. Storer (1952) noted that the southernmost race, madrensis, was an apparent bridge in characters toward White-breasted Hawk (chionogaster). For this reason, he listed all continental North American forms in sequence and moved the 3 West Indies races to follow erythronemius, which race he thought the West Indies forms resembled in barring of underparts, perhaps indicating a closer relationship with South American forms than with those of North America.
A. striatus velox (Wilson, 1812): See Distinguishing characteristics, above. Breeds North America from Alaska and Canada south to s. U.S.; some western populations only partially migratory or resident, others wintering over much of breeding range south through Middle America to central Panama, casually to the West Indies and Bermuda. Gray to grayish blue above, crown darker; tail with alternating narrower dark and broader pale tail bands (outer rectrices of all races have dark bars narrower than pale bars; some velox have width of dark bars equal to pale bars; Storer 1952); underparts white with conspicuous rufous or tawny bars, including tibial feathers; iris of adult orange to red.
A. s. perobscurus Snyder, 1938: Breeds on Queen Charlotte Is., British Columbia, and, possibly, adjacent mainland; partly migratory reaching Oregon and possibly farther south. Slightly darker than velox (especially in Juvenal plumage); underparts more heavily marked and white of belly reduced (Snyder 1938, Friedmann 1950). This race not recognized by Hellmayr and Conover (1949).
A. s. suttoni van Rossem, 1939: Resident in San Luis Mtns. of Chihuahua-Sonora boundary south locally in mountains of Mexico to Michoacán and from Coahuila to Veracruz; possibly intergrades with velox north to extreme s. Arizona and s. New Mexico (suttoni not definitely known from U.S. contra Am. Ornithol. Union 1957; see Storer 1952, Phillips et al. 1964). Similar to velox but tibial feathering unbarred and more reddish; paler below, especially on breast, with faint blackish shaft streaks. This race not recognized by Hellmayr and Conover (1949).
A. s. madrensis Storer, 1952: Resident in Sierra Madre del Sur, Guerrero and w. Oaxaca (west of Isthmus of Tehuantepec; Binford 1989). Similar to suttoni but much paler below, underparts whitish faintly washed and marked with pale rufous; tibial feathering pale, unmarked rufous.
A. s. striatus Vieillot, 1808: Resident on Hispaniola. Small, with russet or tawny tinge to sides of head and less-conspicuously barred tail; underparts with narrower and more regular barring than in velox; tibial feathers barred Sayal Brown (Friedmann 1950).
A. s. fringilloides Vigors, 1827: Resident on Cuba. Similar to nominate striatus except for cinnamon (no. 123a) sides of head; entire abdomen and undertail-coverts white; tibial feathers barred grayish brown (Friedmann 1950).
A. s. venator Wetmore, 1914: Puerto Rico. Blackish tail bars more distinct than on other West Indian subspecies. Similar to striatus, but darker upper parts. Thigh feathers rufescent (Friedmann 1950).

White-Breasted Hawk (Chionogaster Group). 
One subspecies. Storer (1952) interpreted a cline in pattern and color of underparts toward paler, relatively unmarked populations in s. Mexico (madrensis) as a bridge to the white underparts of chionongaster and therefore lumped this taxon with other Sharp-shinned Hawk forms to the north. Also, because chionogaster was in the past regarded as a race of erythronemius (along with ventralis) of South America (e.g., Hellmayr and Conover 1949), Storer (1952) believed all taxa should be merged under striatus . Monroe (1968) disagreed with this view and regarded all these taxa as separate species.
A. s. chionogaster Kaup, 1852: Chiapas, Mexico, south to Nicaragua. Smaller than other Mexican subspecies. Adults with upperparts sooty (head) to fuscous black; underparts white, with prominent blackish shaft streaks on chin, throat, and breast; tibial feathering unmarked, light ochraceous-buff.

Rufous-Thighed Hawk (Erythronemius Group). 
Two subspecies, each sometimes regarded as distinct species (e.g., Sibley and Monroe 1990, Bierregaard 1994).
A. s. ventralis Sclater, 1866: Resident of Andean w. Venezuela, Colombia, and w. Bolivia. Highly variable, ranging from very pale below to heavily barred, with some melanism, the latter possibly restricted to males (Hellmayr and Conover 1949, but see Wattel 1973). Distinguished from both velox and chionogaster by deep rufous, reddish chestnut, or cinnamon brown (Smithe 1975–1981: color no. 33) tibial feathers; lighter on belly than on throat and breast; dark tail bands broader than paler bands.
A. s. erythronemius Kaup, 1850: Resident e. Bolivia, s. Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and n. Argentina. Similar to ventralis but ventral barring, when present, more prominent and upperparts more uniform and darker (back almost entirely slaty black or fuscous brown); somewhat smaller than ventralis


Brad

Brad Jacobs
Missouri Department of Conservation
P.O.Box 180
Jefferson City , MO 65102
573-751-4115 ext 3648

-----Original Message-----
From: Missouri Wild Bird Forum [mailto:[log in to unmask]] On Behalf Of Donald Hays
Sent: Wednesday, May 30, 2012 5:43 PM
To: [log in to unmask]
Subject: Brad's quiz

Answer to 2nd part of the question: Brazil!
Don Hays
Union
Sent via BlackBerry by AT&T

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The Audubon Society of Missouri's Wild Bird Discussion Forum
Questions or comments? Email the list owners:
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January 2009, Week 4
January 2009, Week 3
January 2009, Week 2
January 2009, Week 1
December 2008, Week 5
December 2008, Week 4
December 2008, Week 3
December 2008, Week 2
December 2008, Week 1
November 2008, Week 5
November 2008, Week 4
November 2008, Week 3
November 2008, Week 2
November 2008, Week 1
October 2008, Week 5
October 2008, Week 4
October 2008, Week 3
October 2008, Week 2
October 2008, Week 1
September 2008, Week 5
September 2008, Week 4
September 2008, Week 3
September 2008, Week 2
September 2008, Week 1
August 2008, Week 5
August 2008, Week 4
August 2008, Week 3
August 2008, Week 2
August 2008, Week 1
July 2008, Week 5
July 2008, Week 4
July 2008, Week 3
July 2008, Week 2
July 2008, Week 1
June 2008, Week 5
June 2008, Week 4
June 2008, Week 3
June 2008, Week 2
June 2008, Week 1
May 2008, Week 5
May 2008, Week 4
May 2008, Week 3
May 2008, Week 2
May 2008, Week 1
April 2008, Week 5
April 2008, Week 4
April 2008, Week 3
April 2008, Week 2
April 2008, Week 1
March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
March 2008, Week 2
March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3

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