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MOBIRDS-L  October 2009, Week 2

MOBIRDS-L October 2009, Week 2

Subject:

Re: Is the Prairie Chicken about to become extinct in MO.

From:

Philip Wire <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Philip Wire <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 12 Oct 2009 11:55:27 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (132 lines)

"Would someone please explain why prairie chickens are going extinct
in Missouri."

It doesn't take much to put an area that is capable of holding
chickens over the edge. I think the best study done in MO showing just
how fragile prairie chicken populations can be from land use changes
was done by Don Christisen in the 80's.  His primary focus was Charles
Schwartz's former study area in Sullivan County in north-central MO.
In the 1940's this area had the largest flocks of prairie chickens in
Missouri (winter flocks of several hundred birds). By 1955, they were
gone. Christisen crunched a lot of land use data and found the
following: slightly more cattle on existing grasslands, a lot more row
crops, and much less land in permanent grass like hayfields. Chickens
disappeared. My guess for the Taberville area is that the carrying
capacity of the surrounding land is virtually nil, and thus only a few
birds can be supported by Taberville proper. Same for Dunn Ranch.

Another "problem" is that the breeding strategy of the prairie chicken
(like a lot of gallinaceous birds) leads to a high number of bad
nesting years. I read somewhere that two out of five years,
weatherwise, are usually pretty bad for nesting, two are "OK," and one
is usually good. (Good means relatively warm and dry when the hens are
on the nest and once the nestlings emerge--young can be very
susceptible to starvation and hypothermia). My hunch is that the birds
depend upon these sparse good years to "restock"-- even if you look at
healthy populations they fluctuate a lot. All of Missouri's
populations have gotten small enough now I just don't think the hens
and brood-rearing habitat exist to "restock" in a good year, and we
have had several bad/terrible weather years in a row. I was looking at
some MDC data for nest success in turkeys the past few years and they
have suffered similarly from the weather, but obviously, we have
plenty of turkeys and habitat to "restock" in good years to follow.
Nesting habitat for hens is absolutely critical, and is also the most
marginalized type of chicken habitat under current models of
agricultural usage.

As for what the prairie chicken needs to survive in Missouri, I think
there is some misunderstanding about the versatility of the bird. In
just the past 65 years, incredible densities of prairie chickens have
made a living on the following types of areas, all in Missouri: cattle
ranches in non-native grasses, timothy seed operations, patchwork
prairies interspersed with row crops, and government-owned native
prairies. What do all these habitats have in common? At one point,
they each hosted the highest densities of birds in the state, and
sooner or later, saw those populations collapse. Each time, it has
been about increasing agricultural intensity in the area, a shift away
from permanent grass in the landscape, or both. The prairie chicken
learned to be quite adept at living alongside our agricultural models
circa 1945 or so, it just hasn't (and probably cannot, given its
needs) adapt to contemporary monocrop, heavily farmed landscapes.

The emphasis on huge, treeless landscapes may also be a bit misguided.
Charles Schwartz's pictures of the heart of the north-central MO range
show a decent number of trees-- not so much as to be called savannah,
but certainly not treeless prairie. Yes, predator perches are a small
concern-- but the historical evidence suggests GPCH's could make do
with scattered trees-- even thrived there, as long as the grass cover
was right. I think that since current strongholds are in areas like
the Flint Hills that are literally treeless, we erroneously presume
they need that anywhere. I think it might be correlation, not
causation. That being said, vegetation succession away from grasslands
is a concern, but that's more about encroachment from eastern red
cedar and other trees that don't "belong" in grasslands.

So-- in one sense, increasingly agricultural intensity that has
eliminated healthy, varied, moderately grazed/hayed grass cover is the
culprit. There simply has to be some habitat with decent carrying
capacity around core areas. Take it one step further, you have Adam
Smith's Invisible Hand at work--farmers and ranchers will tell you
that they can literally not afford to work their land less intensely
than they currently do with economic demands as they are. In the
truest sense, the prairie chicken problem is a consumption
problem--which is too big to solve at the state conservation level.

As for prairie chicken management being too expensive, as one poster
has suggested... my recollection is that the Greater Prairie-Chicken
Recovery Plan of 2007 allots 2.2 million dollars a year of state money
for work to be done with prairies over ten years. Contrast this to the
2.4 BILLION dollar budget annual of MODoT (got that info off their
website, annual report)... and one asks if maybe a few two-lane roads
could stay two lanes instead of going to four, and we might be able to
make this thing work. Money is out there, and how we spend it reflects
our societal priorities. I know of one relatively useless road project
in northeast MO slated to go forth that could buy up and manage an
area three times the size of Dunn Ranch-- but I guess a low-traffic
four lane road in this instance, or a publicly supported sports
stadium in another instance, or whatever the money gets spent on is
more important. Relative to total state government and individual
spending, what prairie chickens get is a pittance--enough of a
pittance, to paraphrase Aldo Leopold-- that once they go extinct, we
can have a good cry, forget about them, and repeat the performance
with some other bird.

I really think the prairie chicken represents a great test case for
Missourians' attitudes about conservation for all of the above
reasons. We know what we need to do and the resources certainly exist,
it's simply a case of collective societal willpower and resource
allocation.

Phil Wire
Edwardsville, IL
[log in to unmask]

(Yes, though I live in Illinois temporarily, I'm still a Missourian.
Really wish I could have made the MPF meeting).




On Sun, Oct 11, 2009 at 4:32 PM, Bob Fisher <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
>
> Would someone please explain why prairie chickens are going extinct in Missouri. I understand why their numbers are going down as the number of habitat areas diminish. But I don't understand why they are dying out (or are expected to die out) at places like Dunn Ranch and Taberville Prairie.
>
> I have been watching chickens at Taberville for 37 years. During that time, the CA has remained the same size or grown. There may be more management (i.e. controlled burns, haying, etc.) now than there were when I started going there, but I assume it is more knowledgeable (and therefore better) management.
>
> I do regret that the reclaimed strip mine area south of Montrose was allowed to go to agriculture instead of being acquired for chickens. I used to see sizeable flocks (c. 25 birds) there. Now they are gone. So scratch one area. But why expect them to die out at Taberville?
>
>
> Bob Fisher
> Independence, MO
> [log in to unmask]
>
>
>
> ------------------------------------------------------------
> The Audubon Society of Missouri's Wild Bird Discussion Forum
> ASM Fall Meeting: September 25-27 at Lake of the Ozarks State Park
> http://mobirds.org/Meetings/fallmtg09.asp

------------------------------------------------------------
The Audubon Society of Missouri's Wild Bird Discussion Forum
List archives: https://po.missouri.edu/archives/mobirds-l.html

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