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MOBIRDS-L  July 2009, Week 4

MOBIRDS-L July 2009, Week 4

Subject:

Taxonomy changes & Systematics

From:

Edge <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Edge <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 27 Jul 2009 07:15:58 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (98 lines)

Mobirders,
An interesting thread on the Kansas listserve began with a message
about changes in taxonomy on the AOU list (only those affecting
Kansas, of course).

Below is a response from Will Chatfield-Taylor, the best explanation
I've seen about taxonomic order and systematic phylogeny. Most of
you can hit that delete key now. But if intrigued, read on.

Edge Wade
[log in to unmask]
Columbia, MO



Tom Shane responded to an explanation I sent him about molecular data
used
for phylogenies and I thought I could use it to clear up some points on
taxonomy and what these changes actually mean.

"I understand the molecular changes when it comes to the Tanagers
etc. But,
you are saying they can now show that quail are older than pheasants
with
molecular biology?"

I can't get too technical with this explanation but I'll try and make it
intelligible (both presentation and content-wise). To start with, these
changes in order aren't showing that a group is 'older' than another,
which
is a very common and reasonable misconception when dealing with
phylogenies.
I know many people in the science world who have this idea.

So here's a quick primer:

In systematics, organisms are grouped into what are known as
monophyletic
groups. This means the group contains an ancestral species and all of
its
descendents. For instance, a monophyletic group would be a family, like
Falconidae, or the genus Falco, or the order Falconiformes, with all the
buzzards, secretary birds, falcons, hawks etc. combined. These are
considered to be monophyletic. These are also called 'clades' which is
easier to write down...

What would be an example of something that isn't a monophyletic clade
would
be the herons and the falcons, because they share a common ancestor,
but the
group doesn't include all the descendents. So systematics is basically
tasked with figuring out what groups of critters are monophyletic.

What this means to the discussion of checklist order:

Trying to transfer a phylogeny onto a checklist is a lot like trying
to pick
up a pin with heavy gloves- it doesn't work very well, if at all. But in
theory, the first groups on the list form a monophyletic clade with all
other birds; The Ostrich's share a common ancestor with all other birds,
which some people term 'basal' (that's not a good term to use, but
that's a
different discussion) but passerines, at the end of the list, only
share a
common ancestor with other passerines, so you would call them 'derived'

By placing the quail before the pheasants on the checklist, it's
trying to
convey that pheasants are more derived than quail, ie they form a
smaller
clade. However, this isn't readily apparent from the checklist
itself, and
the order can occaisionally mean something else, because a phylogeny
isn't
just a simple thing where each item on a checklist is necessarily just a
slightly smaller group and contains everything after it.

The point in the end is to not bother too much with the checklist order,
because it only conveys actual meaning to the person who converted it to
that form and to nobody else who isn't prepared to wade through
hundreds of
scientific papers. But that' the gist of what it's trying to convey.

Unfortunately, it's WAY easier to explain what I mean using some
diagrams,
but I can try to answer any questions people have.

Laters

Will Chatfield-Taylor
(one semester away from a B.S. In EEB at KU, specializing in
entomological
systematics)

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