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MOBIRDS-L  October 2008, Week 3

MOBIRDS-L October 2008, Week 3

Subject:

Fwd: Bird diversity lessens human exposure to West Nile Virus

From:

Randy Korotev <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Randy Korotev <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Tue, 21 Oct 2008 18:13:28 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (111 lines)

>Date: Mon, 20 Oct 2008 09:43:15 -0500
>To: [log in to unmask]
>From: Randy Korotev <[log in to unmask]>
>Subject: Bird diversity lessens human exposure to West Nile Virus
>Oct. 16, 2008
>
>
>Oct. 16, 2008 > Bird diversity lessens human exposure to West Nile Virus
>
>Bird diversity lessens human exposure to West Nile Virus
>
>By Tony Fitzpatrick
>
>This one's for the birds.
>
>A study by WUSTL biologists shows that the more 
>diverse a bird population is in an area, the 
>less chance humans have of exposure to West Nile Virus (WNV).
>
>"The bottom line is that where there are more 
>bird species in your backyard, you have much 
>lower risk of contracting West Nile fever," said 
>Brian Allan, doctoral candidate in biology in Arts & Sciences.
>
>"The mechanisms are similar to those described 
>for the ecology of Lyme disease," Allan said. 
>"Most birds are poor reservoirs for West Nile 
>Virus, and so mosquito bites taken on them are 
>'wasted' from the perspective of the virus.
>
>"Where many bird species exist, very few 
>mosquitoes get infected, and so we humans are at 
>low risk. A few bird species are highly 
>competent reservoirs, and these tend to occur in 
>urbanized and suburbanized areas where bird diversity suffers," Allan said.
>
>The most common "reservoir" species that 
>urbanites and suburbanites and even rural 
>dwellers in heavily farmed landscapes see are 
>crows, grackles, house finches, blue jays, 
>sparrows and American robins, with the robin 
>being the most prolific carrier of WNV.
>
>Robins are anthrophilic  they love being around 
>humans  and it's relatively easy for mosquitoes 
>to take their blood meals from them because robins feed so much on the ground.
>
>Allan, his adviser Jonathan M. Chase, Ph.D., 
>associate professor of biology, and 14 
>collaborators from numerous institutions will 
>publish their findings in a forthcoming issue of Oecologia.
>
>While diversity of bird species is important in 
>this scenario, that factor alone doesn't tell the whole story.
>
>"It's not just about the number, but their 
>relative proportions," Allan said. "It's a 
>combination of richness  the number of species 
> and evenness  their relative proportions.
>
>"In urban and suburban areas, you see lower 
>species richness and lower community evenness. 
>For instance, you might have five species 
>present, but in 100 animals, 90 are just one 
>species. That's why species number is only half the equation."
>
>Allan and some of his fellow graduate students 
>began the research five years ago as they 
>entered graduate school and West Nile Virus was 
>just beginning to receive attention.
>
>The ecology of the organism hadn't been studied 
>much, so they identified a variety of field 
>sites, both urban and rural, with their base of 
>operations at Tyson Research Center and its 
>2,000 acres of woods, glades and prairie.
>
>The students performed bird surveys at the 
>sites, put up mosquito traps and studied 
>different mosquito species and their ability to transmit the virus.
>
>Using kits provided by the Centers for Disease 
>Control and Prevention, they tested the 
>mosquitoes and found three positive pools.
>
>"The infection rates are actually remarkably 
>low, with maybe one in 1,000 carrying WNV," Allan said.
>
>They expanded their study to include mosquito 
>infection data from the St. Louis City and St. 
>Louis County Health departments. They saw the same patterns.
>
>The greater bird diversity, the lesser incidence 
>of WNV; the lesser diversity, the greater likelihood of WNV.
>
>To broaden their finding even more, Allan and 
>his colleagues used national data sets on human 
>cases of WNV and a tool called the Shannon 
>Diversity Index to estimate the diversity of 
>bird populations across the United States.
>
>"We're seeing locally and nationally that bird 
>diversity is a buffer against the occurrence of 
>West Nile Virus in humans," Allan said. "That's 
>a win-win situation for both conservation and public health."
>

------------------------------------------------------------
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