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MOBIRDS-L  February 2005, Week 2

MOBIRDS-L February 2005, Week 2

Subject:

Re: Prarie mgmt/bird distribution

From:

Thomas Nagel <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Thomas Nagel <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Thu, 10 Feb 2005 16:07:04 -0600

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (149 lines)

I appreciate Mr. Willis support for efforts to restore prairies in
Missouri.  The following is an explanation of why the cedars were cut at
Star School Hill Prairie in particular.

This was done in an effort to restore one of the rarest natural
communities in Missouri - the dry loess/glacial till prairie.  An
inventory done in the early 1990's indicated that only approximately 50
total acres of higher quality dry loess/glacial till prairie still
existed in the Missouri River bluffs in Atchison and Holt Counties.
Other more degraded sites were being rapidly invaded by trees, including
the eastern redcedar.

In the "Missouri Species and Communities of Conservation Concern
Checklist", this community type is listed as "S2 - Imperiled in the
state because of rarity or because of some factor(s) makiing it very
vulnerable to extirpation from the state (6-20 occurrences or few
remaining individuals or acres)"   Also, over a dozen state listed
plants and animals occur in the dry/loess glacial till prairies.  Over a
half dozen of these were surviving in openings where the cedars have
been cut at Star School Hill Prairie Conservation Area.  This site was
acquired primarily to conserve this rare prairie type.

Below is an article I wrote for the Missouri Natural Areas Newsletter
last year with additional background and  information on this rare type
of prairie.

Loess Hill Prairies Making a Comeback
   The Missouri Department of Conservation is restoring dry prairie
natural communities found at Star School Hill Prairie, Brickyard Hill
Loess Mound, and McCormack Loess Mound Natural Areas in Atchison and
Holt Counties.  In Missouri, this type of natural community is found
only in the Missouri River bluffs in the northwest corner of the state.

    The loess hills that occur along the eastern side of the Missouri
River valley in northwestern Missouri and western Iowa are one of the
few areas in the world where soils accumulate to depths of 100 to 200
(or more) feet.  Here, the erosion of nothing but deep soil (with no
exposure of underlying bedrock) dramatically shapes the local
topography.
    After rains, hill prairies dry out swiftly.   The physical
composition of the soil allows water to drain quickly through it while
slopes of 30 to 45% (or greater) cause water to flow downhill over the
surface rapidly.   Additionally, precipitous western and southern slopes
are more directly exposed to drying by the sun.   Winds further dry the
hill prairies as they blow unimpeded five to ten miles across the flat
Missouri River floodplain before running abruptly into the adjacent
bluffs.
    These combined factors dessicate  or dry out the hills and allow
several plants much more common in  the arid parts of western Kansas and
Nebraska over 100 miles away, to exist in the Missouri River bluffs of
extreme northwestern Missouri.  The loess hills prairies uniqueness did
not go unnoticed by early botanists.   A report on the unusual
assemblage of plants in the hill prairies was printed by the Missouri
Botanical Garden in 1895.  Today, over a dozen state listed plant
species occur here.
    Aerial photographs taken in the 1940's compared to those taken in
recent years show dramatically how rapidly woodlands have invaded and
nearly taken over the native hill prairies.  To reverse this trend, in
recent years the Conservation Department has contracted to cut trees and
shrubs off of loess hill prairies.  This cutting, combined with
prescribed fire to control re-invasion by woody species, allows more
light to reach the ground.   The timing of fire is varied among sites
and years to keep one suite of species from dominating another.  The
unusual assemblage of prairie plants, including several Great Plains
species, is spreading back into these restored areas.  A number of
uncommon animals live here as well.
     The formation of loess soils is closely tied to past glacial
events.  When glaciers, which once covered the northern part of the
central U.S., began melting during the summer months, silt laden waters
flowing down the Missouri River flooded it's valley from bluff to
bluff.  With colder winter temperatures, melting ceased and the flood
plain dried.  Since no vegetation could grow during the summer season,
vast amounts of dried silt were open to the winter winds to be swept up
and deposited in the adjacent bluffs.   McCormack Loess Mound, Brickyard
Hill Loess Mound, and Star School Hill Prairie Natural Areas preserve
sites that are both vegetationally and geologically unique in Missouri.
They are outstanding representatives in the state's Natural Area
system.





>>> Doug Willis <[log in to unmask]> 2/9/2005 5:14:26 PM >>>
Mobirders:
I understand (and support) efforts to restore Missouri's praries. With
this in mind, I would like to comment on a couple of things.
First, at Dunn Ranch (near Eagleville, MO), they have cleared out
streamside/fencerow brush on a massive scale.
This includes the areas where at least 2 pairs of Black-Billed Cuckoo's
were found last summer. I hope it doesn't take me too long to find some
more this year!
Second, I have logged some major hours and miles looking for a
wintering Townsend's Solitaire in NW Missouri. What I have found are
large stands of old cedars that have been cut on many MDC Conservation
areas (Star School Road Prarie was my latest heartbreak). These cedars
surely provided winter habitat for owls, as well.
With the current "decedarfication" of these areas in NW Missouri and
with the loss of so many of the (non-native) pines to ice/disease, I
wonder if the status and distribution of Townsend's Solitaire,
Crossbills, wintering Owls, etc. might need to be re-examined, in order
to more accurately reflect current distribution?
Doug Willis
Kansas City, MO

__________________________________________________
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##################################################

Tom Nagel
Natural History Biologist
Mo. Dept. of Conservation
701 NE James McCarthy Drive
St. Joseph, MO  64507
816-271-3111 ext. 248
816-271-3107 (Fax)
E-mail - [log in to unmask]

__________________________________________________
*        Audubon Society of Missouri's           *
*         Wild Bird Discussion Forum             *
*------------------------------------------------*
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*    SIGNOFF MOBIRDS-L                           *
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October 2003, Week 1
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June 2003, Week 1
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May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
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