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MOBIRDS-L  February 2004, Week 4

MOBIRDS-L February 2004, Week 4

Subject:

Re: Late Rpt - 2/19/04 - Greater Prairie Chickens

From:

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Reply-To:

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Date:

Fri, 27 Feb 2004 09:14:08 EST

Content-Type:

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In a message dated 2/21/2004 11:47:16 PM Central Standard Time,
[log in to unmask] writes:
Most interesting was the roadside discussion I had with a older gentleman and
his female (wife?) companion. They live in Cole Camp and visit the prairie
most days to check on the Greater Prairie Chickens. Thursday the 17th was the
first time this year they had seen the birds at the lek. They said the birds
will be at the lek both in the morning and the late afternoon on most (all?) days
in March and April. The gentleman remembered when this population of chickens
numbered around 200 birds. He said that when the line of cedar trees, where
the chickens roosted at night, were cut down their numbers dropped. He
described how tragic it was to see the chickens flying to trees that were no longer
there. When we further "managed" the prairie by burning the grasses the numbers
of chickens dropped again. (He stated that lightening initiated fires radiate
out but our management fires are started as a circle and burn inward
completely destroying everything including the insects the chickens would feed on.)
Last year there were 33 chickens at this lek and this year the number is down to
19 according to his count. Very sad.
This is in reply to Susan Hazelwood's post some time ago.  I wanted to pass
on this information to Sharon Gough, a prairie chicken biologist with MDC and
get her comments.  Here they are....................

Hi Kathy,

Thanks for your note and the offer of a chance to respond.  I am fairly
certain of who it was Susan Hazelwood ran into on her visit to Hi
Lonesome.  This citizen has voiced his views regarding the cedar trees
for years now, and no amount of discussion seems capable of dissuading
him.  I do not doubt his honesty or his intentions....I think he is
extremely concerned for the prairie chickens and convinced that the
Department of Conservation has sped their demise with our tree removal
policy.  However, based on years of research and documentation from
scientists throughout the prairie chicken breeding range (in Missouri
and elsewhere), I can't help but doubt the accuracy of his conclusions.

Regarding tree use, prairie chickens will use them occasionally.  They
will fly to some species, particularly cottonwood, and particularly in
periods of extended ice and snow cover, to "bud", or pick off and
consume the buds as substitute for their usual fare.   When on the
booming ground, I have seen what appears as a "sentinel" bird on a
nearby low-growing snag or bush, who sounds the alarm in the event of
approaching predators (I don't know that this is what is actually going
on, but that's what it looks like.)  Birds flushed off the lek by
mammalian predators may find quick, temporary refuge in a nearby
tree....not because they prefer the tree, but because there is typically
no adequate grass cover nearby and the tree is temporarily the safest
place that gets them out of reach of coyote or bobcat while enabling
them to avoid leaving the vicinity of the lek.  Their drive to be on or
near that spot at that time of year overrides the survival instincts
that would otherwise take them sailing into the largest expanse of good
grassland cover they can find.

These particular birds may have spent time in this particular line of
trees (local biologists say the tree-line under discussion was mostly
hedge) as a way to survey the area for predators or temporarily avoid
predators on the lek.  If the treeline had many cedars and formed a
particularly dense visual barrier, the birds may have entered the trees
in order to see what was lurking on the other side.  I have never
witnessed nor seen documentation of this sort of behavior in any of the
literature, but I will always concede that with biology, anomalies like
this could happen.

However, when it comes to roosting, prairie chickens have not been
documented anywhere but on the ground.  Futhermore, the vast
preponderance of greater prairie chicken literature cites the
encroachment of trees as one of the biggest threats to their long-term
survival.  An enormous amount of tree invasion, attested by aerial
photography, has occurred across the private lands surrounding Hi
Lonesome over the past 50 years. If trees are what prairie chickens
need, the birds should be doing quite well, as they don't have to go
far to find an abundance of either cedar or hedge.

Not only do trees provide raptor perches, but travel lanes and denning
sites for mammalian predators which exact a heavy toll on prairie
chicken leks and nests.  Predator pressures in gpc range in Canada are
responsible for 20 to 30% of all ground nests being lost before they
have a chance to incubate.  As you move south, that percentage
increases.  In Missouri 40 to 45% of all nests on or near the ground get
hit (by 'coons, 'possums, skunks, crows etc.) before incubation is
complete....and in the coastal states, the depredation rate climbs even
higher.  Increasing nest success rate is our best chance for gaining
stability for our birds, and to do that we must decrease predator
pressures.

Predators can be trapped and then killed or removed.  This has resulted
in nest success increases of 200% and more, in studies on waterfowl
nesting in CRP grasslands.  However, trapping and destroying predators
is not only expensive and unacceptable to the general public, its
effects are transient.  It must be done annually in order to be
effective, and over time, alternative predators move in to fill the
niches we leave empty.  For example, the removal of coyotes, allows the
foxes to move in.  The removal of coyotes and foxes leaves more for the
cotton rats.  The removal of rats would leave more for the snakes....and
on it goes.

The only long-term answer to this extremely dynamic dilemma appears to
be manipulation of the habitat.  And that is exactly what the tree
removal program seeks to do.  It is not being done fast enough in most
cases, but it is being done as fast as time and resources will allow.
And with the advent of the Grasslands Coalition and the emphasis of
efforts in GC "Focus Areas", we appear to be making faster inroads in
some places.

For numbers on Hi Lonesome, I requested records from Larry Mechlin,
Prairie Chicken Research Biologist, who has kept track of the p.c.
survey for the last 15 years.  The Hi Lonesome area is surveyed annually
by Department staff (usually the same person, to maximize consistency
and efficiency.)  These numbers represent all birds within one mile of
Hi Lonesome CA:

Male       Female      Date
18              8           4/07/03
15              6           3/27/02
24            17           3/25/01
9               1           3/28/00
14              1           3/30/99
  6              0           4/02/98
11              0           3/29/97
24              0           4/06/96
35              6           3/29/95
33              9           4/09/94

Surveying all the birds in the vicinity gives us a more accurate view
of the population size, as juvenile males and hens will move from lek to
lek, often in the same day.  The number that the local citizen remembers
for 2003 (33) is altogether possible, if he was present on a day of high
hen visitation.  The number that he cited for this spring will quite
possibly grow, as his count was taken very early in the lekking season.
Severe drops in these numbers over the years were typically echoed on
other booming grounds across the state, evidence of the effects of cold,
wet springs or rainy weather during the peak of the hatch.  The 2004
survey will begin in late March or early April.

Regarding fire, it is absolutely essential to the maintenance of
tallgrass prairie. Without fire, tree and brush encroachment can
entirely swallow a prairie within a few decades.  Mowing can be used to
address tree encroachment in the early stages, but it also removes all
nesting and brood-rearing cover without the stimulating effects of fire.


Ring-head fires have been the method of choice for their comparative
speed and safety.  We cannot responsibly start a fire that radiates out
naturally.  Ring-head fires allow managers to create a black line around
the down-wind side of a burn before a head-fire is lit.  Remarkably few
animals appear to expire in these fires. Occasionally, mice, snakes,
rabbits and (especially) turtles do get trapped in the blaze when caught
too far from holes and burrows. (This is particularly true in a
slow-moving fire.  Turtles will often survive a blaze quite well, if the
conditions are right and the fire is moving quickly enough.)

Burning a black line first and then extinguishing it before the
head-fire is lit might enable some escapes.  However, it would also add
significantly to the time required to conduct the burn, and there is
debate over whether the loss of a few individual animals warrants the
extra time.  It is also debatable whether those individuals would be
able to outrun the fire--or whether they would forsake their attempts to
return to familiar holes and burrows in favor of heading towards an area
that already has been burned and smells of smoke.   Managers must weigh
all this against the fact that there is never enough time to burn all
that needs burning. Some do make an effort to install back-fire black
lines first.  Some take care to close the head-fires very slowly to
allow more time for animals to pass.

Regarding prairie chickens and fire, the birds evolved with fire.  They
are strong fliers and have often been seen sailing out of fire.  Nests
and young brood would certainly be destroyed, which is why prairie
managers attempt to burn prior to nest initiation or in areas of high
brush encroachment that would be unlikely spots for prairie chicken
nesting in the first place.  But it is important to note that no matter
when a burn is conducted, it is going to impact a certain suite of
species dependent on a certain cover type at that particular time of the
year.  There is no way to do maintain a fire regime without destroying
some individuals along the way.  Managers must keep in mind the
importance of maintaining habitat for the long-term survival of the
species as opposed to losing habitat for the short-term survival of the
individual.

I hope this helps answer some of the questions that have arisen after
the chance encounter with this citizen.  I would in no way refute his
claim that he saw what he said he saw.  I can only offer that based on
what we know from years of observation of biologists across the
continent, and based on the reams of research and literature they have
produced, the Department is doing the best we know how to do for the
prairie chickens.

Thanks again for asking....I probably sent you more than you needed!
Please let me know if you have further questions!

thanks,

Sharron

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November 2009, Week 5
November 2009, Week 4
November 2009, Week 3
November 2009, Week 2
November 2009, Week 1
October 2009, Week 5
October 2009, Week 4
October 2009, Week 3
October 2009, Week 2
October 2009, Week 1
September 2009, Week 5
September 2009, Week 4
September 2009, Week 3
September 2009, Week 2
September 2009, Week 1
August 2009, Week 5
August 2009, Week 4
August 2009, Week 3
August 2009, Week 2
August 2009, Week 1
July 2009, Week 5
July 2009, Week 4
July 2009, Week 3
July 2009, Week 2
July 2009, Week 1
June 2009, Week 5
June 2009, Week 4
June 2009, Week 3
June 2009, Week 2
June 2009, Week 1
May 2009, Week 5
May 2009, Week 4
May 2009, Week 3
May 2009, Week 2
May 2009, Week 1
April 2009, Week 5
April 2009, Week 4
April 2009, Week 3
April 2009, Week 2
April 2009, Week 1
March 2009, Week 5
March 2009, Week 4
March 2009, Week 3
March 2009, Week 2
March 2009, Week 1
February 2009, Week 4
February 2009, Week 3
February 2009, Week 2
February 2009, Week 1
January 2009, Week 5
January 2009, Week 4
January 2009, Week 3
January 2009, Week 2
January 2009, Week 1
December 2008, Week 5
December 2008, Week 4
December 2008, Week 3
December 2008, Week 2
December 2008, Week 1
November 2008, Week 5
November 2008, Week 4
November 2008, Week 3
November 2008, Week 2
November 2008, Week 1
October 2008, Week 5
October 2008, Week 4
October 2008, Week 3
October 2008, Week 2
October 2008, Week 1
September 2008, Week 5
September 2008, Week 4
September 2008, Week 3
September 2008, Week 2
September 2008, Week 1
August 2008, Week 5
August 2008, Week 4
August 2008, Week 3
August 2008, Week 2
August 2008, Week 1
July 2008, Week 5
July 2008, Week 4
July 2008, Week 3
July 2008, Week 2
July 2008, Week 1
June 2008, Week 5
June 2008, Week 4
June 2008, Week 3
June 2008, Week 2
June 2008, Week 1
May 2008, Week 5
May 2008, Week 4
May 2008, Week 3
May 2008, Week 2
May 2008, Week 1
April 2008, Week 5
April 2008, Week 4
April 2008, Week 3
April 2008, Week 2
April 2008, Week 1
March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
March 2008, Week 2
March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3

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