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MOBIRDS-L  August 2003, Week 2

MOBIRDS-L August 2003, Week 2

Subject:

Shane Key to Hummingbirds

From:

Edge Wade <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Edge Wade <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Wed, 13 Aug 2003 14:51:32 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (132 lines)

KEY TO THE COMMON FEMALE AND IMMATURE HUMMINGBIRDS OF KANSAS.
By: THOMAS G. SHANE

This key is designed to help identify those hummingbirds other than the
adult males at your feeders and flowers. This includes 90 - 95% of our
migrants. An entirely different set of characters is used when banders
identify hand held hummingbirds.

**Hummingbird Characters of Little use in Determining Species**
Do not worry about size, it is very deceptive.
Do not worry about the shade of the green on the back.
Do not worry about the white around the eye, it is highly variable.
Do not worry about the color of the under tail coverts.
Do not worry about the density of small to medium green spots on the
throat.
Do not worry about the white tips to tail feathers, all 5 species have
them.

**If you have only Seconds at a Hummingbird Observation**
Do look for the rust color or lack of on the sides/flanks.
Do look at the tail for size, shape and color patterns.

A. HUMMINGBIRD SHOWS CONSIDERABLE RUFOUS/RUST ON SIDES/FLANKS.

--1. RUFOUS HUMMINGBIRD.
---a. Generally has medium rust color on flanks, occasionally a breast
band.
---b. Considerable rust in the tail feathers at the base, usually
apparent in a side view of perched bird.
---c. Tail wedge shaped, central feathers green, some rust often shows
around upper tail coverts.
---d. Tail longer than wings.
---e. Some rusty flecks in upper tail coverts and on back, "Important
character". Immature males often have a considerable amount of rust in
same area.
---f. Very aggressive and territorial.

--2. BROAD-TAILED HUMMINGBIRD.
---a. Varies from a medium to light rust color on flanks, occasionally
shows a breast band.
---b. Small area of rust at base of tail feathers, harder to see in a
side view.
---c. Tail large and squared, central feathers green, tail looks green
when perched.
---d. Tail longer than wings.
---e. Upper tail coverts and back green, no rust.
---f. Wing beats often appear slower in this species.

--3. CALLIOPE HUMMINGBIRD.
---a. Always a light rust color on flanks which extends in a narrow band
across breast.
---b. Almost no rust in tail feathers at the base.
---c. Tail squared off, central feathers end in black making a
noticeably small black tail in flight or perched.
---d. Tail shorter than wings, "Important character".
---e. Upper tail coverts and back green
---f. When observed at close range bill appears short and needle like.

B. HUMMINGBIRD SHOWS LITTLE OR NO RUST ON SIDES/FLANKS, GENERALLY LIGHT
BREASTED, SMALL HEAD AND NECK, AURICULAR AREA OFTEN DARK, TAIL LONGER
THAN
WINGS WHEN PERCHED, AND HAS NO RUST IN TAIL.

--4. RUBY-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD.
---a. Green cap and forehead.
---b. Straight bill.
---c. Does not pump tail when bill is in feeder or flower while feeding.
---d. Forked tail observed while perched.
NOTICE: If you observe all four of the characters above on same bird
then you will be about 80% sure of a Ruby-throat.

--5. BLACK-CHINNED HUMMINGBIRD.
---a. Grayish to grayish green cap and forehead.
---b. Slightly decurved bill.
---c. Pumps tail when bill is in feeder or flower while feeding.
---d. Squared or rounded tail observed while perched.
NOTICE: If you observe all four of the characters above on same bird
then you will be about 80% sure of a Black-chin.

C. If you see a large dark spot or two on the throat try and get a
reflection of the iridescent color. It will nearly cinch the id for you.
--RUFOUS..........Golden Orange
Note: First iridescent spots are often on side of neck on the immature
male
Rufous.
--BROAD-TAILED....Rose Red
--CALLIOPE........Garnet Red
--RUBY-THROATED...Flame Red
--BLACK-CHINNED...Purple
 >

Nancy Newfield (full discussion appeared on the COBIRDS listserv in
August
2000) describes some extra characters that aren't in Tom's key.

First, a general caution (which should be applied to most other species
of
hummers as well):
The ease of differentiating female and immature Broad-tails and Rufous
is greatly exaggerated. ... there is a lot of variability in the
plumages of both species.

Second, the undertail coverts:
The only detail that I find consistently that can be used to distinguish
the two is the coloration of the undertail coverts - and I realize that
that part of the bird can be difficult to view.  So far, all Rufous [and
Allen's] I've seen have bright to pale rusty undertail coverts and all
Broad-taileds [and Calliopes] have creamy white undertail coverts.

Finally, call notes:
Vocally, Broad-taileds give a liquid, musical "chrp" while Rufous
usually emit a hard "chp" or "chup".  However, I have heard a few Rufous
give calls that sound remarkably like
Broad-tailed calls, though I have not heard Broad-taileds to sound like
Rufous.
(She cautions, though, that she has much more experience with Rufous
than with Broad-tailed.)

__________________________________________________
*        Audubon Society of Missouri's           *
*         Wild Bird Discussion Forum             *
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*    SIGNOFF MOBIRDS-L                           *
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June 2003, Week 1
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May 2003, Week 4
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