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MOBIRDS-L  June 2003, Week 2

MOBIRDS-L June 2003, Week 2

Subject:

Red Knot decline

From:

Edge Wade <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Edge Wade <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sat, 14 Jun 2003 22:19:03 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (164 lines)

Disturbing News. Hope many of you got to see the Red Knot at Horseshoe
Lake (ironic name--perhaps the bird read the sign and...)

Edge Wade
Missouri Bird Alert compiler
[log in to unmask]

Sounding an alarm on crab harvests
     By Kaitlin Gurney
        Inquirer Staff Writer


  REEDS BEACH, N.J. - For nearly a decade, scientists
worldwide have been watching this marshy corner of
  the Delaware Bay, predicting an ecological
  nightmare.

A tiny shorebird known as the red knot descends here every spring to
feast upon iridescent green horseshoe crab eggs to fuel its long flight
to mate in the Arctic. But in a vivid example of the precariousness of
the food chain, as the numbers of helmet-shaped crabs have declined, so
have the birds.

This cold, unforgiving spring, researchers' worst fears have been
confirmed: The red knot population on the bay has plummeted to 16,255,
less than half that of last year. Birds have pecked the sand for crab
eggs, and finding few, will likely die on their flight to nest up north.

  Extinction is imminent, scientists say.
  "This year seems to be the beginning of the great drop-off," said Larry
Niles, chief of the state's endangered and nongame species program, who
hosts a group of shorebird scientists from Australia, England, Canada
and the Netherlands every year at Reeds Beach in Cape May County.

  "We believe the red knot is like the passenger pigeon - you see a lot
of them, and then you see none. There is a scientific model predicting
extinction by 2010. After this year's decline," he said, the timetable
may be accelerated.

  If the birds disappear, so may the $34 million spent annually by
bird-watchers who flood Cape May and Cumberland Counties to observe the
migration of five different shorebirds dependent on horseshoe crab eggs,
according to the New Jersey Audubon Society. The numbers of ruddy
turnstones, sanderlings, least sandpipers and semipalmated sandpipers
also have dwindled, but none as dramatically as the red knot.

  Environmentalists and researchers alike blame the decline of the
tawny-breasted birds on the overharvesting of horseshoe crabs. The
crabs, which
  date to prehistoric times and are actually a member of the spider
family, can fetch more than $1 apiece from eel and conch fishermen eager
to use them for bait.

  A clotting agent in the crabs' blood also makes them valuable to the
biomedical industry, which uses them to screen for toxins in drugs and
medical equipment.

  In April, both New Jersey and Delaware imposed emergency regulations
cutting the horseshoe crab harvest in half, to 150,000 on each side of
the bay, and banning fishing in May and June, the birds' migration
season.

  New Jersey's regulations still stand. But Delaware's were struck down
in court last month after a group of four fishermen challenged them on
procedural grounds. Delaware's Division of Fish and Wildlife is working
to draft permanent regulations, but fishermen are free to collect the
crabs off the state's beaches this year.

  "Crabbers from both sides of the river are rushing to take advantage of
Delaware's predicament," said Tim Dillingham of the American Littoral
Society, a Shore conservation group based in Sandy Hook. "I've heard
reports of crabs spilling out of overloaded pickup trucks onto the
highway."

  On the other side of the bay, on the jetty at Reeds Beach, scientists
and volunteers in lawn chairs sit in three teams, recording information
about the red knots as shorebirds swoop down around them. Calling out
data in a flurry of accents, workers trap 300 palm-sized birds at a time
and pass them on to be banded for future identification, equipped with
radio transmitters, and weighed and measured.

  This same routine has taken place since 1998. Scientists know there
were more than 50,000 birds on the bay then, compared with the 16,255
found this year. In 1998, nearly 34,000 birds attained the minimum
6-ounce weight needed to survive the journey to the Arctic, compared
with 5,376 last year.

  This year, just three or four birds out of every 24 had gained
sufficient weight to make the 2,000-mile flight north.

  More shorebird studies are going on in the Delaware Bay than anywhere
else in the world, Niles said.

  In contrast, little is known about horseshoe crabs; researchers can
only guess at their population numbers. New Jersey studies have shown
that the
  concentration of green eggs on the beach has declined by 50 percent
since the 1990s, but Delaware reports that the crab population has
stayed stable in recent years, just not large enough to sustain
migrating birds. Compounding problems this year has been the cold, wet
weather, which has delayed the spawning season of the crabs.

  Most fishermen argue that the horseshoe crab population is healthy.

  "The regulators' science is not sound - the bird people are pulling the
wool over their eyes. My watermen are reporting a thick population [of
crabs] this year," said Tim Willard, the Delaware attorney who
challenged the rules in court. "The horseshoe crabs aren't to blame for
the birds not gaining weight. They came late this year, after the egg
party was over," he said, referring to the crabs' peak spawning period
last weekend. The birds' visit to this region is expected to end this
weekend.

  The group of international scientists who study the birds during the
winter in South America and in the summer in the Arctic have urged
officials in both
  states this year to abandon harvesting quotas and declare a moratorium.
Horseshoe crabs do not reach sexual maturity for nine years, they say,
and the population needs to be given time to recover.

  "Only one factor that affects the birds has changed while their
population has dropped, and that's the availability of crabs here," said
Clive Minton, a researcher from Australia. "The only way to reverse it
is a moratorium for at least five years, allowing the crabs to breed."

  The New Jersey Department of Environmental
  Protection's endangered species advisory committee is also likely to
call for a horseshoe crab moratorium, said Jim Applegate, a Rutgers
professor and longtime panel member.

  "I don't know if the shoe is fundamentally dropping or if this is an
off season for the birds, but we need to err on the side of caution,"
Applegate said. "We had a moratorium on striped bass in the 1980s, and
it was tremendously successful. If we can constrain a fishery as strong
as striped bass, surely we can constrain bait for eel."

  If the Delaware Bay continues to dry up as a source of food for the
migrating red knots, their days are numbered, Niles said. Areas heavy
with horseshoe crabs in Virginia are too far south to fuel the Arctic
journey, and food is scarce farther north.

  This year's red knot numbers reinforce theories that the birds' path to
extinction is accelerating, said Allan Baker, a professor at the
University of Toronto.

  "This place, the Delaware Bay, had always been the birds' insurance
policy, the crown jewel in the flyway on the way to the Arctic," Baker
said. "But now the population is ready to crash, and extinction will
follow."

__________________________________________________
*        Audubon Society of Missouri's           *
*         Wild Bird Discussion Forum             *
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*    SIGNOFF MOBIRDS-L                           *
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October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
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September 2007, Week 1
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August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
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July 2007, Week 1
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June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
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January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
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December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
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November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
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November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
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February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
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December 2004, Week 5
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November 2004, Week 1
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October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
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September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
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February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
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January 2004, Week 3
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January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
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August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
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July 2002, Week 3

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