WORTHWHILE is ONE word.
----- Original Message -----
From: "Carrol Cox" <[log in to unmask]>
To: <[log in to unmask]>
Sent: Friday, June 27, 2003 8:21 PM
Subject: Re: OT: Eden
> William Gray's conception of what is and is not "OT" raises some
> interesting questions that I am exploring in another response. But his
> exchange with Nancy suggests that the words "paradise" and "eden" can
> create more confusion than I had expected. Hence it might be worth while
> to quote the OED's history of the word "paradise." Members of a
> particular church may define their use of such words as they choose, but
> anyone wishing to engage in discussion of a poet will have to honor the
> whole history of the word and cannot impose his/her sectarian vocabulary
> on other participants in the conversation.
> Query: Did Eliot intend (or to what extent did he intend) the reader
> consciously to observe a link between the 4Q and Dante's _Paradiso_?
> (Say of the sort between TWL and the Canterbury Tales established by the
> first line of that poem. I would assume that the pervasive use of
> imagery echoing the four elements in 4Q links that poem -- or those
> poems - to the echo of Chaucer in TWL???)
> Here follows the complete OED article on _paradise_ (n)
> Early ME. a. F. paradis (also in early semi-popular form paraïs,
> pareïs), ad. L. parads-us, a. Gr. , a. OPers. pairidaza enclosure, park,
> f. pairi around + diz to mould, form; whence also Armenian pardez, late
> Heb. pards (Neh. ii. 8 the park of the Persian king, also Eccl. ii. 5);
> in mod.Pers. and Ar. firdaus garden, paradise.
> Used in Gr. (first by Xenophon) for a (Persian) enclosed park, orchard,
> or pleasure ground; by the LXX for the garden of Eden, and in N.T. and
> Christian writers for the abode of the blessed, which is the earliest
> sense recorded in Eng. The OE. equivalent was neorxna wang; cf. Hexam.
> St. Basil 16 Paradisum æt we hata on Englisc neorxna wang; called also,
> Phnix 418, se hala wong (wong land, territory, surface of the ground).]
> 1. a. The garden of Eden. Also called earthly (terrenal, terrene,
> terrestre) paradise, to distinguish it from the heavenly paradise.
> a1175 Cott. Hom. 221 God a hine brohte into paradis. c1175 Lamb. Hom.
> 129 Heo weren ipult ut of paradise. c1250 Gen. & Ex. 291 He sa in
> paradis Adam and eue in mike[l] pris. 13.. K. Alis. 5685 Paradys terrene
> is righth in the Est. 1340 Ayenb. 50 Ase he did to euen and to Adam in
> paradys terestre. c1400 Destr. Troy 5496 Evfraton & e flode
> Tyger..passyn out of peradis urghe the playn Rewme. 1481 CAXTON Reynard
> xxxii. (Arb.) 83 Bytwene the grete Inde & erthly paradyse. 1588 PARKE
> tr. Mendoza's Hist. China 397 The riuer Ganges, one of the foure that
> comme foorth of paradice terrenall. 1667 MILTON P.L. IV. 132 He..to the
> border comes Of Eden, where delicious Paradise..Crowns with her
> enclosure green..the champain head Of a steep wilderness. 1885 Encycl.
> Brit. XVIII. 236/2 The earthly paradise, as developed by Christian
> fancy, is the old garden of Eden, which lay in the far East beyond the
> stream of Ocean, raised so high on a triple terrace of mountain that the
> deluge did not touch it.
> c1175 Lamb. Hom. 129 et wes eorliche parais. a1225 Ancr. R. 66 Eue heold
> ine parais longe tale mid te neddre. 13.. in Pol. Rel. & L. Poems (1866)
> 230 e ates of parais oruth eue weren iloken.
> b. Hence in names of plants and animals: apples of paradise, the fruit
> of the plantain, Musa paradisiaca; bird of paradise, see BIRD n. 7;
> grains of paradise, see GRAIN n. 4.
> 1585 T. WASHINGTON tr. Nicholay's Voy. I. xvi. 17b, Apples of paradice,
> which they call muses.
> c. ellipt. The plumage of a bird of paradise (cf. BIRD n. 7).
> 1905 E. WHARTON House of Mirth II. x. 446 Mrs. Trenor's hat? The one
> with the green Paradise? 1928 Daily Express 24 May 5/3 The same firm was
> responsible for wonderful curls of shaded paradise,..toning from dark to
> palest beige tones.
> 2. a. Heaven, the abode of God and his angels and the final abode of the
> righteous. (Now chiefly poetic.)
> [c1000 Ags. Gosp. Luke xxiii. 43 To-dæ u bist mid me on paradiso [Hatton
> on paradise; Gr. , Vulg. in paradiso; WYCLIF in paradys, TIND. in
> paradise].] c1205 LAY. 24122 at he..efen heom his paradis, æt heo mosten
> bruken blisse mid ænglen. a1240 Ureisun in Cott. Hom. 191 I-brouht of
> helle in-to paradise. 1340 Ayenb. 14 et lif wy-oute ende et is e blisse
> of paradis. 1484 CAXTON Fables of Æsop v, I haue dremed that the Angels
> had led one of yow in to paradys or heuen. 1500-20 DUNBAR Poems lxxvi. 4
> A fre chois gevin to Paradice or Hell. 1587 FLEMING Contn. Holinshed
> III. 1352/1 If he vouchsafe to call you into paradise, how blessed shall
> you be. 1635 A. STAFFORD Fem. Glory cxxii. (1869) 122 You..shall at
> length arrive at the Celestiall Paradice. 1858-60 J. GARDNER Faiths of
> World II. 11 The Jewish Rabbis teach that there is an upper and a lower
> paradise or heaven. 1862 F. W. FABER Hymn, O Paradise, O Paradise..Where
> loyal hearts and true, Stand ever in the light..In God's most holy
> c1175 Lamb. Hom. 61 To bon in heuene fuliwis. In toue[?] sete of parais.
> a1225 St. Marher. 13 Paraises eten aren arewe iopenet e nu. a1300 Floriz
> & Bl. 76 Him ute he was in parais. c1325 Song Virg. 33 in O.E. Misc. 195
> Leuedi quene of parays.
> b. The Muslim heaven or elysium.
> c1400 MANDEVILLE (1839) xii. 132 if a Man aske them [Saracens], what
> Paradys thei menen; thei seyn, to Paradys, that is a place of Delytes,
> where men schulle fynde alle maner of Frutes, in alle Cesouns [etc.].
> 1702 ROWE Tamerl. IV. i. 1766 Prophet, take notice I disclaim thy
> Paradice. 1813 BYRON Giaour 489 note, The Koran allots at least a third
> of Paradise to well-behaved women. 1816 Siege Cor. 255 Secure in
> paradise to be By Houris loved immortally. 1841 LANE Arab. Nts. I. 20
> Some assert Paradise to be in the seventh heaven, and, indeed, I have
> found this to be the general opinion of my Muslim friends.
> c. By some theologians, the word as used in Luke xxiii. 43 is taken to
> denote an intermediate place or state where the departed souls of the
> righteous await resurrection and the last judgement. Cf. 'Abraham's
> bosom', Luke xvi. 23.
> a1690 G. BULL Serm. Acts i. 25, Wks. 1846 I. 55 Then..he [St. Paul] saw
> also the intermediate joys of paradise, wherewith the souls of the
> faithful are refreshed until the resurrection. Ibid. 59. 1703 D. WHITBY
> Paraphr. N.T. Luke xxiii. 43. 1713 A. CAMPBELL Doctr. Mid. State (1721)
> 53. 1739-56 DODDRIDGE Fam. Expositor (1761) IV. 523 He was also caught
> up into Paradise, that Garden of God, which is the Seat of happy Spirits
> in the intermediate State, and during their Separation from the Body.
> 1776 WESLEY Let. to Miss Bishop 17 Apr., In Paradise, in the
> intermediate state between death and the resurrection. a1806 HORSLEY
> Serm. (1811) 395 Paradise was certainly some place where our Lord was to
> be on the very day on which he suffered, and where the companion of his
> sufferings was to be with him. It was not heaven. 1835 J. H. NEWMAN Par.
> Serm. (1837) III. xxv. 412 Paradise is not the same as Heaven, but a
> resting-place at the foot of it. 1885 Catholic Dict. (ed. 3) 518 The
> Limbus Patrum is the Paradise of Luc. xxiii. 43, so called because it
> was a place of rest and joy, though the joy was imperfect.
> 3. a. A place like or compared to Paradise; a region of surpassing
> beauty or delight, or of supreme bliss.
> c1300 St. Brandan 147 That is Foweles Parays, a wel joyful place. c1386
> CHAUCER Knt.'s T. 379 Fful blisfully in prison maistow dure. In prison?
> certes nay but in Paradys. 1387 TREVISA Higden (Rolls) VII. 215 No man
> schulde be i-chose pope but he were of e paradys of Italy i-bore. 1553
> EDEN Treat. Newe Ind. (Arb.) 15 A man woulde thinke it were a very
> Paradyse of pleasure. 1590 SPENSER F.Q. II. xii. 58 There the most
> daintie Paradise [the Bowre of Blisse] on ground It selfe doth offer to
> his sober eye. 1607 NORDEN Surv. Dial. v. 230, I was once in
> Somersetshire, about a place neere Tanton, called Tandeane... You speake
> of the Paradice of England. 1617 [see HELL 10]. 1745 P. THOMAS Jrnl.
> Anson's Voy. 297 Among their Buildings are many which..appear..perfect
> Paradises. 1814 P. HAWKER Diary (1893) I. 123 These gardens are the most
> perfect paradise I ever saw. 1891 E. KINGLAKE Australian at H. 136
> [Australia] is a rather overdone Paradise of the working man.
> b. fig. A state of supreme bliss or felicity. See also FOOL'S PARADISE.
> c1386 CHAUCER Merch. T. 21 Wedlok is so esy and so clene That in this
> world it is a Paradys. a1548 HALL Chron., Hen. VII 6 This poore priest
> brought into this foolishe paradice through his awne fantasticall
> ymaginacion. 1742 GRAY Eton 98 Thought would destroy their paradise.
> 1813 M. EDGEWORTH Patron. (1833) II. xxviii. 211 As she seemed entering
> the paradise of love and hope. 1897 'OUIDA' Massarenes xl, I shall deny
> him the paradise of your embrace. 1902 A. M. FAIRBAIRN Philos. Chr.
> Relig. I. ii. 79 Comfort..seems to many Englishmen the only real
> c. Assoc. Football. (With capital initial.) A name given to Celtic Park,
> Glasgow, the home ground of the Celtic Football Club.
> 1946 C. A. OAKLEY Second City III. 168 Celtic Park..seemed so palatial,
> in odd comparison with an adjacent graveyard, that it was described as
> the 'Paradise'. 1958 C. TULLY Passed to You xxii. 92 One of the best
> things about being at Paradise is that you're pretty certain to move in
> good company... You'll go a long way before you meet a better bunch than
> the Tims of Parkhead.
> 4. a. An Oriental park or pleasure-ground, esp. one enclosing wild
> beasts for the chase. b. Hence sometimes applied to an English park
> in which foreign animals are kept.
> 1613 PURCHAS Pilgrimage (1614) 75 Betweene Orpha and Caramit, was the
> Paradise of Aladeules, where he had a fortress destroyed by Selim. 1621
> BURTON Anat. Mel. II. ii. IV. (1651) 269 A Persian Paradise, or pleasant
> park, could not be more delectable in his sight. 1775 R. CHANDLER Trav.
> Asia M. (1825) I. 296 He had moreover an extensive paradise or park,
> full of wild beasts. 1865 RAWLINSON Anc. Mon. III. i. 34 Semiramis built
> a palace, and laid out a paradise. 1900 Daily News 3 Aug. 5/1 A
> 'paradise' is the technical term for a preserve in which attempts are
> made with more or less success to acclimatize foreign birds and animals.
> The three most successful paradises in England are Haggerstone Castle,
> near Beale; Leonardslee, in Sussex; and Woburn Abbey.
> 5. A pleasure-garden in general; spec. the garden of a convent. Obs.
> Hence sometimes surviving in the street nomenclature of old cities or
> towns; e.g. 'Paradise Square', Oxford.
> [1374-5 Durham Acc. Rolls (Surtees) 180 In reparacione muri circa
> paradis'.] 1610 HOLLAND Camden's Brit., Irel. II. 111 Minding to replant
> it like unto a certaine garden or Paradise. 1662 EVELYN Diary 9 June,
> [At Hampton Court] There is a parterre which they call Paradise, in
> which is a very pretty banquetting-house set over a cave or cellar. 1686
> Ibid. 4 Aug., Signior Verrio..now settled in his Majesty's garden at St.
> James's, which he had made a very delicious Paradise. 1875 PARKER Gloss.
> Archit. (ed. 4), Paradise,..also the garden of a convent: the name seems
> originally to have been given to the open court, or area, in front of
> the old church of St. Peter's at Rome.
> 6. Sometimes given (perh. orig. in jest) as a distinctive name to a
> particular apartment. Obs.
> 1485 Rolls of Parlt. VI. 372/2 The Keping of the Houses called Paradyse
> and Hell, within the Hall of Westminster,..and also the Keping of the
> Purgatory within the said Hall, whiche Nicholas Whytfeld late had and
> occupied. 1538 LELAND Itin. (1710) I. 39, I saw in a litle studiyng
> Chaumber ther caullid Paradice the Genealogie of the Percys. Ibid. 46.
> 7. slang. The gallery of a theatre, where the 'gods' are. Cf. F.
> paradis. (Slang Dict. 1873.)
> 8. attrib. and Comb., as paradise body, garden, weather, etc., also
> paradise-like adj.; paradise apple, (a) a variety of apple: cf.
> paradise-stock; (b) the Forbidden Fruit or Pomello; paradise-bird =
> bird-of-paradise: see BIRD n. 7; paradise crane, the blue or Stanley
> crane, Anthropoides paradisea, found in South Africa and distinguished
> by a cluster of very long, black tail feathers; paradise-duck, a species
> of sheldrake (Casarca variegata) found in New Zealand; paradise-fish,
> (a) see quot. 1858; (b) a brilliantly coloured East Indian fish
> (Macropodus viridiauratus) sometimes kept in aquariums;
> paradise-flycatcher, a bird of the genus Terpsiphone, remarkable for the
> length of its middle tail-feathers; paradise-grain = grain of Paradise:
> see GRAIN n. 4; paradise-grosbeak, an African species of grosbeak (Loxia
> erythrocephala), grey and white, with red head and chin, often kept as a
> cage-bird; paradise stock, a hardy slow-growing apple-tree used as a
> stock by nurserymen for dwarfing other varieties; paradise-tree, a small
> West Indian tree, Simaruba glauca.
> 1676 WORLIDGE Cider 159 The *Paradice-Apple is a curious Fruit, produced
> by grafting a Permain on a Quince. 1699 EVELYN Kal. Hort. Nov. (ed. 9)
> 131 Stocks of the Paradise or sweet Apple-kernel. 1834 Penny Cycl. II.
> 191/2 The stocks..are the wild crab, the doucin or English paradise, and
> the French paradise apple. 1857 MAYNE Expos. Lex., Paradise Apple,
> common name for the fruit of the Citrus Paradisi.
> 1617 K. THROGMORTON in St. Papers Col. (1870) 50 [Sends presents,
> including] a *paradise bird'. 1774 GOLDSM. Nat. Hist. VIII. Index Ffib,
> Paradise-bird..an inhabitant of the Molucca islands.
> 1690 BAXTER Kingd. Christ i. (1691) 10 Some think that the [resurrection
> body] ..is to be a *Paradise body, like Adams before he sinned.
> 1906 Daily Chron. 8 May 7/4 His consignment..included..three *paradise
> cranes, five wolves and seven baboons. 1958 E. T. GILLIARD Living Birds
> of World 146/1 Other species [of crane] are named for their ornamental
> plumage, coloration, wattles or geographical rangesas, for example..the
> Paradise or Stanley Crane..of southern Africa; and the Crowned Crane.
> 1845 E. J. WAKEFIELD Adv. N. Zealand iii. 57 The *paradise duck..is
> nearly as large as a goose, and of beautiful plumage. 1882 Pall Mall G.
> 29 June 4/2 He is pretty sure of a good bag of pigeons, with as many
> paradise ducks as he cares to carry.
> 1858 SIMMONDS Dict. Trade, *Paradise-fish, a species of Polynemus, which
> is esteemed excellent food in India. 1885 C. F. HOLDER Marvels Anim.
> Life 18 In Siam there is found a fish..known to science as the
> Macropodus or paradise-fish, on account of its curiously-shaped fins.
> 1893 NEWTON Dict. Birds 275 One of the most remarkable groups of
> Muscicapidæ is that known as the *Paradise Flycatchers,..the males are
> distinguished by the growth of exceedingly long feathers in their tail.
> 1910 O. LINDEMANN tr. Delius's Village Romeo & Juliet 178, I know
> another place not very far from here where we'll be quite unknown. 'Tis
> the *Paradise Garden. Ibid. 192 Der Paradiesgarten... The
> Paradisegarden. 1972 Country Life 23 Mar. 682/3 It has been suggested
> that such places as this, in which an attempt is made to bring together
> plants from all parts of the world, should be known as paradise gardens.
> 1977 A. WILSON Strange Ride R. Kipling iv. 221 The Woolsack [sc. their
> South African house] was a delight to the whole Kipling family... For
> the children..it was clearly a Paradise garden.
> 1705 W. BOSMAN Guinea xvi. (1721) 285 Malagueta, otherwise called
> *Paradice-Grains, or Guinea Pepper.
> 1663 GERBIER Counsel cvj, Your Lordships *Paradise-like Garden at
> 1706 LONDON & WISE Retir'd Gard'ner I. I. xvii. 82 An Apple upon a
> *Paradise Stock. 1834 Penny Cycl. II. 191/2 The doucin or English
> paradise stock, which is what the English nurserymen usually sell as the
> paradise stock, is intermediate in its effect between the crab and the
> French paradise.
> 1875 W. CORY Lett. & Jrnls. (1897) 381 Last week was a marvel of
> *paradise weather.