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TSE  December 2006

TSE December 2006

Subject:

Re: TSE Digest - 17 Dec 2006 to 18 Dec 2006 (#2006-310)

From:

"Rickard A. Parker" <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

T. S. Eliot Discussion forum.

Date:

Wed, 20 Dec 2006 07:37:37 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (219 lines)

Temur Kobakhidze wrote:
> 
> Sorry for having sort of jumped into your discussion of Four Quartets,
> and many thanks for the links. I still think the best link to the Ghent 
> Altarpiece is http://www.wga.hu/index1.html , and that is Web Gallery of 
> Art.

I have to disagree about where the best pictures are.  Wikipedia's can
be enlarged by clicking on the picture seen on the article page for
one thing.  It also discourses on the alterpiece.  Either Wikipedia
ignored the part of the panel with the Sybil or I missed it so I
clicked the link to Wikicommons' pictures of the alterpiece and I
picked up a 1 MB screen-filling (944x1760 pixels) detail of just the
part of the panel containing her.


> I vaguely remember a discussion of the topic here on this list years ago, 
> but sadly the archives are inaccessible, and I don't remember who the 
> participants were.

The posts that you've mentioned are by Raphael Ingelbien in
November, 1998.  There was some discussion of panels in art work
(St. Sebastian, I think) and Raphael wrote an aside:
    Speaking of panels: I recently had another look at Van Eyck's
    Mystic Lamb, this time with possible Eliotic allusions in mind.
    It was rather intriguing. Eliot's hippopotamus started drifting
    into the cathedral...

Jim Loucks replied to Raphael with:
    Can you elaborate on your last remark about the painting [and]
    TSE's hippo?

Before Raphael replied there was some silliness on the list about the
hippo and TSE and anti-semitism that Raphael continued a bit before
getting more serious.

I'm adding a few of Raphael's posts below my signoff.


> I can understand, that one can see no hippopotami in the paintings of van 
> Eyck, but the whole thing does not seem as simple as that. What I am asking 
> for is your comment. To what extent the suggestion that TSE parodied 
> Adoration in The Hippopotamus is true?

Now that I've got Raphael's suggestions to steer me I'll see where they'll
take me.


Regards,
    Rick Parker


P.S. - And an aside from me: Later that month Arwin van Arum also wrote:
    Not to mention Theophile Gautier's "l'Hippopotame" of course,
    but you knew that.



 ============================================================================

> Date: Fri, 27 Nov 1998 21:14:38 +0000 (GMT)
> From: "R.J.Ingelbien"
> Subject: Re: Lamb/hippo

On Fri, 27 Nov 1998, james loucks wrote:

> Can you elaborate on your last remark about the painting the TSE's hippo?

You see, Jim, it was in Ghent's marvellous cathedral that things 
suddenly fell into place: looking at Van Eyck's Mystic Lamb, I got the 
revelation that Eliot was not just a misogynist, a fascist, a racist, a 
bigot, an antisemite, a thief (it was he who stole the lost panel of course) 
but that he was indeed the Antichrist himself...


OK, here is what I noticed: 

- the lamb, washed as white as snow, if you like,
- the true church, looking on,
- the choir of the martyred virgins,
- lurking in a corner, our old TWL friend the Sibyl of Cumae.

There might have been some other things as well, which I don't remember 
right now. I didn't take notes, sorry. I was also looking at the painting 
for itself. 

Besides alluding to Van Eyck, 'The Hippopotamus' also alludes to _Heart of 
Darkness_ of course. More specifically, to the dead hippo meat that 
the cannibals take with them on the boat, and which the pilgrims (another 
version of the supposedly true church that Eliot also satirises) chuck into 
the river since they can't bear its stench. By letting the dead hippo, 
washed as white as snow, ascend to heaven, Eliot redeems it from Conrad's 
heart of darkness. The pilgrims remain confined to it, sailing on one of the 
rivers of hell as others in Eliot remain stuck on the shores Dante's 
Inferno - most notably the Hollow Men, who can only see that 'Mistah 
Kurtz, he dead'. Kurtz himself can only exclaim 'the horror!' because he 
worships the false whiteness of ivory. Had he helped himself to 
the hippo's meat, he would have glimpsed the possibility of redemption - 
in Eliot's reading, if not in Conrad. Instead, he sits upon the shore, 
fishing for the bits of dead hippo meat unwisely discarded by the 
pilgrims. The dead hippo lies at the bottom of the river, full fathom 
five: the hippo is the Jew of course, i.e. the only one who, like his 
derided brother Bleistein, will find grace in God's eyes. 

 ============================================================================

> Date: Sun, 29 Nov 1998 15:00:02 +0000 (GMT)
> From: "R.J.Ingelbien" <[log in to unmask]>
> Subject: Re: Van Eyck


On Sat, 28 Nov 1998 [log in to unmask] wrote:

> If people ask you what you think of the van Eyck, you'll ordinarily
> say a few sentences, and it isn't going to be as revealing of your ideas
> as, say, your writing a  15-page essay on the painting. 

A bit much to ask at this point, I would say. I was only suggesting that 
Eliot may have remembered the painting when he wrote 'The Hippopotamus'.

> 1) I wasn't aware he had visited Ghent, so fill me in. If he didn't, this
> isn't fatal because he could have known the painting through a postcard or
> reproduction.

He did visit Ghent shortly before W.W.I, as well as Bruges and Antwerp. 
That's mentioned in his letters, as well as in Gordon. You say that he 
was more into Italian art than in Flemish/Germanic painting: this may be 
true, but he may have been particularly impressed by some of the 
paintings he saw in Flanders. Again, which painting of St Sebastian
struck him most? I can't remember for sure right now, but from what I 
remember of Gordon I think it was something he saw in a Flemish museum. 
Correct me if i'm wrong.    
As you point out, it is also true that Northern painters took Revelation 
as their subject more often than their Italian counterparts.
As for postcards or reproductions: Van Eyck's triptych is quite a tricky 
thing to reproduce, what with its three panels (some of which are painted 
on both sides) and its sheer size. 

> 3) Here's the biggest problem.  The Ghent Altarpiece is based on imagery,
> especially the mystic lamb, from the book of Revelation.

True. What makes it quite interesting is that it condenses Revelation in 
a visionary mode rather than a narrative one. Thus, the central panel has 
the Lamb at its centre, with various groups looking on (groups of Eliotic 
interest here: the martyr'd virgins, the confessors). In other words, it 
is an extremely synthetic condensation of images.
I am not sure Eliot liked it - certainly his response to the Flemish art 
towns was not wholly enthusiastic. He complained of their slightly musty 
atmosphere, the old miasmal mist hanging about the place.

> possibility A--Eliot and van Eyck both borrow imagery from Revelation.
> 
> possibility B--Eliot borrows from van Eyck, who borrowed from Revelation

Or a mixture of both.

> The Biblical book is bizarre and "surrealistic." Many artists
> tone down the imagery. In Revelation, for example, the mystic lamb has "seven
> horns and seven eyes." Van Eyck trimmed this back to a normal number of eyes
> and no horns.

On the other hand, he still adopts a visionary rather than a narrative 
approach. He was no Bosch OK, but he did adopt a challenging method.

> Now if you seriously felt the van Eyck was relevant, why not lay out your
> reasoning? Maybe you see something I'm not noticing.

I don't have a 'reasoning' at this stage, beyond the suggestion that Van 
Eyck may have been part of the kind of religiosity that Eliot was satirising 
in 'The Hippopotamus'. I don't think I know enough about Eliot's 
response to the visual arts to develop this much further, but since some 
people on the list are rather gemmed up on that aspect I thought I would 
float the idea of a connection and see what they could make of it.

 ============================================================================

> Date: Mon, 30 Nov 1998 15:39:08 +0000 (GMT)
> From: "R.J.Ingelbien" <[log in to unmask]>
> Subject: Re: Van Eyck

On Sun, 29 Nov 1998 [log in to unmask] wrote:

> > I don't have a 'reasoning' at this stage, beyond the suggestion that Van 
> >  Eyck may have been part of the kind of religiosity that Eliot was
> > satirising  in 'The Hippopotamus'.
> 
> That makes a lot of sense to me, and Belgium was (is it still?) a Catholic
> nation.  If he didn't much care for the low countries, that might be even 
> more reason for being satirical.  

Belgium is indeed a largely Catholic country (I wouldn't call it a nation).
Although Eliot was to move towards Anglo-catholicism, poems like 'The 
Hippopotamus' or 'Mr Eliot's Sunday Morning Service' sometimes read like 
quasi-Lutheran satires on the corruption of the Catholic church. The True
Church that is attacked in 'The Hippopotamus' seems definitely Catholic 
to me. Belgium was of course one of the main centres of the 
Counter-Reformation in Europe, though the expression of that was Rubens - 
Van Eyck came earlier. 

> I see Eliot as the studious (pedantic, conscientious) kind of tourist who
> goes to a museum and reads everything the museum has available about the
> works on display.

That's partly why I think he may have had Van Eyck in mind in 'The 
Hippopotamus'. As you said, it's difficult to decide whether he is 
referring to Revelation, or Van Eyck, or both. What puzzles me is Eliot's 
reference to the 'martyr'd virgins' who will kiss the hippo. Revelation 
mentions martyrs (6.9) and virgins - the latter being part of the vision 
of the Lamb on Mount Zion (14.4). Problem: those virgins are male - i.e. 
those who have never been with a woman. The martyrs of 6.9, on the other 
hand, are not specifically virgins, male or female. 
Now if you look at Van Eyck's representation of the vision of the Lamb, 
you'll see that the virgins are women (or most of them. I didn't check 
whether there were males among the lot). The Cathedral's leaflets refer to 
them as 'martyred virgins' - though of course I not sure that Eliot would 
have been given anything of the kind to read.
Still, I found that rather intriguing.

 ============================================================================

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