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MOBIRDS-L  September 2006, Week 3

MOBIRDS-L September 2006, Week 3

Subject:

Bicknell's Thrush --great article

From:

Edge <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Edge <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sun, 17 Sep 2006 09:21:34 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (128 lines)

 From Barry Haas on the Arkansas listserve:

Researchers work to save rare songbird
By MARY ESCH, Associated Press Writer

LAKE PLACID, N.Y. - As dusk shrouded the summit of Whiteface  
Mountain, Juan Klavins aimed his headlamp at the bird in his left  
hand, its head between his fingers and its wing extended to expose a  
crimson vein.
The 26-year-old Argentine researcher deftly pierced transparent skin  
with a hypodermic needle and filled two fine glass tubes with blood  
to be tested for mercury. The bird craned its neck to eye the  
swarming gnats, impatient to resume feeding.
The fledgling was a rare Bicknell's Thrush, subject of a long-term  
study by the Vermont Institute of Natural Science on the bird's  
breeding grounds at high elevations in the Northeast and its  
wintering grounds in the Caribbean.
Bicknell's Thrush is a cousin of the American Robin but is smaller  
and slimmer, with a brown back and wings, chestnut tail, buffy breast  
and speckled throat. Unlike the common Robin, Bicknell's is rarely  
seen, living in dense fir forests on high mountaintops. It is  
identified more often by its lilting flute-like song than by sight.
Although Bicknell's is not formally listed as endangered or  
threatened, it is among the rarest of American songbirds.
"The reason we started studying this bird is that it's not only very  
rare, but it also requires a very specific habitat that faces a  
variety of threats," said Chris Rimmer, who started the Bicknell's  
study in 1992 with a colleague at the institute.
The species breeds only in scrubby boreal forests above 2,800 feet on  
top of mountains in New Hampshire, Maine, New York, Vermont and  
eastern Canada.
"It's a difficult bird to study because it's distributed across a  
fragmented range of mountaintops which we sometimes refer to as 'sky  
islands.' We estimate the total population to be between 20,000 and  
40,000 birds," Rimmer said.
The bird's habitat faces potential threats from ski area development,  
communications tower construction, wind energy projects, acid rain,  
mercury and global warming.
"Every one we've sampled has mercury in its system, although we don't  
know yet whether the level is high enough to adversely affect them,"  
Rimmer said. "This was a very surprising and compelling finding for  
the science community."
For the last five years, an annual census by volunteers called  
Mountain Birdwatch has documented a 7 percent annual decline of  
Bicknell's, Rimmer said. "We really need more time to make any  
meaningful conclusions, but that does provide further evidence that  
we need to be concerned."
It has been well documented that loons and other water birds suffer  
neurological and reproductive problems linked to high mercury levels  
from eating fish. Now, it appears mercury is moving up the food chain  
from soil to insects to birds, even on the highest mountains, Rimmer  
said.
Like acid rain, much of the mercury causing pollution in the  
Northeast drifts from coal-burning power plants in the Midwest.
Among all the potential threats to Bicknell's habitat, global climate  
change is the most worrisome, Rimmer said. "If current trends  
continue, over the next 50 years we're going to see a dramatic change  
and loss of the balsam fir forests that these birds require," he said.
There are also serious threats to the bird's winter habitat, the  
Caribbean island of Hispaniola, which includes Haiti and the  
Dominican Republic, where 90 percent of the total population of  
Bicknell's Thrush is believed to winter, Rimmer said.
The Olympic Regional Development Authority in Lake Placid, which  
operates a state-owned ski center on Whiteface, launched a project  
this summer in cooperation with environmental groups to raise money  
to protect Bicknell's habitat on Hispaniola. The ski center scaled  
back expansion plans and funded a study of Bicknell's habitat on  
Whiteface in 2005.
In the Adirondacks, nearly all mountaintops are part of the state- 
owned Forest Preserve, where tree-cutting and development are banned.  
As a further protection, Gov. George Pataki has declared all state- 
owned mountains above 2,800 feet to be Bird Conservation Areas. About  
70,000 acres in the Adirondacks support breeding populations of  
Bicknell's.
Bicknell's Thrush was considered a subspecies of the more widespread  
Gray-Cheeked Thrush until 1995, when a Canadian taxonomist  
demonstrated it was a distinct species.
Because Bicknell's has been identified as a species so recently, it  
makes an intriguing research subject, said Brendan Collins, 32, a  
Vermont school teacher who did graduate work on Bicknell's and spends  
vacations working for the Vermont Institute.
"Every year, we learn so much about this species that wasn't known  
before," Collins said.
For example, males outnumber females 2-to-1, and both males and  
females mate with different partners. Each nest has young from  
different males. As a result, each nest usually has several different  
males feeding the babies.
Institute researchers have had the rare experience of capturing the  
same bird in both its summer and winter territories.
"In 1995, we banded an adult male on Mount Mansfield in Vermont, and  
six months later the same bird flew into our mist net on a remote  
mountain in the Dominican Republic," Rimmer said. "We caught the same  
bird again on Mount Mansfield in the summers of 1996 and 1997."
After they published a paper about that in 2001, the researchers  
netted a Bicknell's on another mountain in the Dominican Republic in  
2004 that they had banded the previous summer on Vermont's Stratton  
Mountain.
"It provides a compelling biological link between Vermont and the  
Dominican Republic, and underscores the need for conservation on both  
ends of the bird's range," he said.
Collecting the data requires long days in the field. Before their  
trip to Whiteface, Collins, Klavins and 22-year-old Pat Johnson of  
Hanover, N.H., awoke at 3:45 a.m. on a Catskill peak 150 miles to the  
south, finished sampling birds there, carried 80-pound packs down the  
mountain and drove to the Adirondacks.
In the fading light on Whiteface, they strung 800 yards of mist nets  
along a rocky trail and went to work collecting blood and feather  
samples, measuring bills and wings, noting body fat and parasites,  
clamping identification bands on legs, and writing down numbers by  
the light of headlamps and flashlights.
After a few hours dozing in sleeping bags on the ground, they arose  
at 4 a.m. for the morning netting, followed by an afternoon nap on  
sun-warmed rocks.

__________________________________________________
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*              Audubon Society of Missouri's              *
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March 2007, Week 1
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October 2006, Week 1
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July 2006, Week 3
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July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
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May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
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April 2006, Week 3
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April 2006, Week 1
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July 2005, Week 1
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May 2005, Week 1
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May 2004, Week 1
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November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
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June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
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March 2003, Week 3
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March 2003, Week 1
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November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
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October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
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September 2002, Week 1
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